Parasitoids

Parasitoids

Trichogrammatoidea Bactrae

Target Pest:

Diamond back moth Plutella xylostella on cabbage, sugarcane borers, sugarcane stalk borers and cotton bollworms

Recommended Dosage:

2, 50,000 per ha

No. of release recommended:

Five releases at weekly intervals

Parasitoids

Trichogramma Chilonis

Target Pest:

Sugarcane borers, Cotton bollworms, Maize stem borer, Diamond back moth, Tomato fruit borer

Recommended Dosage:

50,000/ha on Sugarcane and Vegetables, 100,000/ha on Maize, 1,50,000/ha on Cotton

No. of release recommended:

Sugarcane: 4 to 6 releases at 10 days intervals for early shoot borer; 8 to 10 releases for stalk, internode and Gurdaspur borers Cotton & Vegetables: Six weekly releases Maize: Three releases at five days intervals

Parasitoids

Trichogramma Japonicum

Target Pest:

Top shoot borer of sugarcane and Paddy stem borer

Recommended Dosage:

Sugarcane and Paddy: 50,000/ha

No. of release recommended:

Sugarcane: 4 to 6 releases at 10 days intervals on observing pest or from 60th day.
Paddy: 6 releases on appearance of pest or from 30th day after transplanting

Parasitoids

Trichogramma Pretiosum

Target Pest:

Tomato fruit borer Helicoverpa armigera and brinjal fruit and shoot borer (100% management)

Recommended Dosage:

50,000/ha

No. of release recommended:

Six releases at weekly intervals on appearance of pest or from 45th day from transplantation

Parasitoids

Tetrastichus Howardi

Target Pest:

Sugarcane internode borer

Recommended Dosage:

2500 adults /acre

No. of release recommended:

Three releases at monthly intervals from 5th , 6th and 7th month after planting four boxes per acre

Predators

Predators

Chrysoperla Carnea

Target Pests:

Sucking pests on Coconut Trees, cotton, tobacco, sunflower, groundnut& some fruit crop

Recommended Dosage:

10,000 first instar larvae/ha

No. of release recommended:

Twice during the season with an interval of 15 days On fruit crops, 10 – 20 larvae per infested tree

Predators

Entomopathogenic Nematode (EPN)

Target Pests:

Insects living in Soil like larval forms of moths, butterflies, flies and beetles as well as adult form of beetles

Recommended Dosage:

4-5 kg/ acre

No. of release recommended:

4-5 kg per acre is minimum dosage(varies according to level of infestation)

Compost

Compost

Vermi Compost

Benifits:

Vermicompost contains water-soluble nutrients and is an excellent, nutrient-rich organic fertilizer and soil conditioner. It is used in farming and small scale sustainable organic farming

Soil:

Improves soil aeration.
Enriches soil with micro-organisms.
Microbial activity in worm castings is 10 to 20 times higher than in the soil and organic matter that the worm ingests.
Attracts deep-burrowing earthworms already present in the soil.
Improves water holding capacity.

Plant Growth:

Enhances germination, plant growth, and crop yield.
Improves root growth and structure.
Enriches soil with micro-organisms.

Economic:

Biowastes conversion reduces waste flow to landfills.
Elimination of biowastes from the waste stream reduces contamination of other recyclables collected in a single bin (a common problem in communities practicing single-stream recycling).
Creates low-skill jobs at local level.
Low capital investment and relatively simple technologies make vermicomposting practical for less-developed agricultural regions.

Environmental:

Helps to close the "metabolic gap" through recycling waste on-site.
Large systems often use temperature control and mechanized harvesting, however other equipment is relatively simple and does not wear out quickly.
Production reduces greenhouse gas emissions such as methane and nitric oxide (produced in landfills or incinerators when not composted).

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